(1) measured quantity value minus a reference quantity value
(2) difference of quantity value obtained by measurement and true value of the measurand
(3) difference of forecast value and a, estimate of the true value
Note: (1) and (2) refer to measurement error, while (3) refers to a forecast error


(1) Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM/WG 2) 200:2012 & ISO/IEC Guide 99-12:2007, International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM),

(2) ISO/TS 19159-1:2014(en), Geographic information - Calibration and validation of remote sensing imagery sensors and data — Part 1: Optical sensors

(3) Lambert, J.-C., MACC II Service Validation Protocol, EC FP7 MACC-II Deliverable D153.1, May 2013,

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