resolution

(1) smallest change in a quantity being measured that causes a perceptible change in the corresponding indication
(2) the least angular/linear/temporal/spectral distance between two identical point sources of radiation that can be distinguished according to a given criterion
(3) the least vertical/geographical/temporal distance between two identical atmospheric features that can be distinguished in a gridded numerical product or in time series of measurements; resolution is equal to or coarser than vertical/geographical/temporal sampling of the grid or the measurement time series

References: 

(1) Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM/WG 2) 200:2012 & ISO/IEC Guide 99-12:2007, International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM), http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/vim.html

(2) Prokhorov, A. V., R. U. Datla, V. P. Zakharenkov, V. Privalsky, T. W. Humpherys, and V. I. Sapritsky, Spaceborne Optoelectronic Sensors and their Radiometric Calibration. Terms and Definitions. Part 1. Calibration Techniques, Ed. by A. C. Parr and L. K. Issaev, NIST Technical Note NISTIR 7203, March 2005.

(3) Lambert, J.-C., MACC II Service Validation Protocol, EC FP7 MACC-II Deliverable D153.1, May 2013, http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/documents/maccii/deliverables/man/MACCII_M...

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