systematic error

component of measurement error that in replicate measurements remains constant or varies in a predictable manner
Note that systematic measurement error, and its causes, can be known or unknown. A correction can be applied to compensate for a known systematic measurement error.
(Note from GUM , 3.2.3): It is assumed that, after correction, the expectation or expected value of the error arising from a systematic effect is zero.
(Note from GUM , 3.3.1): The result of a measurement after correction for recognized systematic effects is still only an estimate of the value of the measurand because of the uncertainty arising from random effects and from imperfect correction of the result for systematic effects.


Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM/WG 2) 200:2012 & ISO/IEC Guide 99-12:2007, International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM),

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